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papa leone xiii rerum novarum

We’d love your help. The richer class have many ways of shielding themselves, and stand less in need of help from the State; whereas the mass of the poor have no resources of their own to fall back upon, and must chiefly depend upon the assistance of the State. Now a State chiefly prospers and thrives through moral rule, well-regulated family life, respect for religion and justice, the moderation and fair imposing of public taxes, the progress of the arts and of trade, the abundant yield of the land-through everything, in fact, which makes the citizens better and happier. 13. But every precaution should be taken not to violate the rights of individuals and not to impose unreasonable regulations under pretense of public benefit. (Mar 6,3) Mirando la divinità di questo esempio, si comprende più facilmente che la vera dignità e grandezza dell'uomo è tutta morale, ossia riposta nella virtù; che la virtù è patrimonio comune, conseguibile ugualmente dai grandi e dai piccoli, dai ricchi e dai proletari; che solo alle opere virtuose, in chiunque si trovino, è serbato il premio dell'eterna beatitudine. “Rerum Novarum” is a prescription for a Utopia second to none. Seek ye first the Kingdom of God and His justice: and all these things shall be added unto you. Need another excuse to treat yourself to a new book this week? 42. Non è giusto, come abbiamo detto, che il cittadino e la famiglia siano assorbiti dallo Stato: è giusto invece che si lasci all'uno e all'altra tanta indipendenza di operare quanta se ne può, salvo il bene comune e gli altrui diritti. Of these duties, the following bind the proletarian and the worker: fully and faithfully to perform the work which has been freely and equitably agreed upon; never to injure the property, nor to outrage the person, of an employer; never to resort to violence in defending their own cause, nor to engage in riot or disorder; and to have nothing to do with men of evil principles, who work upon the people with artful promises of great results, and excite foolish hopes which usually end in useless regrets and grievous loss. A brilliant entry-point of the Roman Church to the social debates of the 19th and 20th centuries. 13, a. In like manner, if within the precincts of the household there occur grave disturbance of mutual rights, public authority should intervene to force each party to yield to the other its proper due; for this is not to deprive citizens of their rights, but justly and properly to safeguard and strengthen them. Lo Stato e il suo intervento nella famiglia. Qui però deve arrestarsi lo Stato; la natura non gli consente di andare oltre. They alone can reach the innermost heart and conscience, and bring men to act from a motive of duty, to control their passions and appetites, to love God and their fellow men with a love that is outstanding and of the highest degree and to break down courageously every barrier which blocks the way to virtue. Of these duties, the following bind the proletarian and the worker: fully and faithfully to perform the work which has been freely and equitably agreed upon; never to injure the property, nor to outrage the person, of an employer; never to resort to violence in defending their own cause, nor to engage in riot or disorder; and to have nothing to do with men of evil principles, who work upon the people with artful promises of great results, and excite foolish hopes which usually end in useless regrets and grievous loss. If through necessity or fear of a worse evil the workman accept harder conditions because an employer or contractor will afford him no better, he is made the victim of force and injustice. This is one of the chief points of distinction between man and the animal creation, for the brute has no power of self direction, but is governed by two main instincts, which keep his powers on the alert, impel him to develop them in a fitting manner, and stimulate and determine him to action without any power of choice. The bishops, on their part, bestow their ready good will and support; and with their approval and guidance many members of the clergy, both secular and regular, labor assiduously in behalf of the spiritual interest of the members of such associations. While it does outline an almost fascist-like society(class collaboration). Lo spirito è quello che porta scolpita in sé l'immagine e la somiglianza divina, ed in cui risiede quella superiorità in virtù della quale fu imposto all'uomo di signoreggiare le creature inferiori, e di far servire all'utilità sua le terre tutte ed i mari. 45. Now, it is to the interest of the community, as well as of the individual, that peace and good order should be maintained; that all things should be carried on in accordance with God's laws and those of nature; that the discipline of family life should be observed and that religion should be obeyed; that a high standard of morality should prevail, both in public and private life; that justice should be held sacred and that no one should injure another with impunity; that the members of the commonwealth should grow up to man's estate strong and robust, and capable, if need be, of guarding and defending their country. Rerum Novarum by Leone XIII is Christianity Leone XIII (Vincenzo Gioacchino dei conti Pecci, Carpineto Romano 1810 - Roma 1903) è stato il 256º papa della storia della Chiesa Cattolica. Si commette ingiustizia solo quando o il padrone non paga l'intera mercede o l'operaio non presta tutta l'opera pattuita; e solo a tutela di questi diritti, e non per altre ragioni, è lecito l'intervento dello Stato. 22. Tutte queste ragioni danno diritto a concludere che la comunanza dei beni proposta dal socialismo va del tutto rigettata, perché nuoce a quei medesimi a cui si deve recar soccorso, offende i diritti naturali di ciascuno, altera gli uffici dello Stato e turba la pace comune. And there are not wanting Catholics blessed with affluence, who have, as it were, cast in their lot with the wage-earners, and who have spent large sums in founding and widely spreading benefit and insurance societies, by means of which the working man may without difficulty acquire through his labor not only many present advantages, but also the certainty of honorable support in days to come. Quando società particolari si prefiggono un fine apertamente contrario all'onestà, alla giustizia, alla sicurezza del consorzio civile, legittimamente vi si oppone lo Stato, o vietando che si formino o sciogliendole se sono formate; è necessario però procedere in ciò con somma cautela per non invadere i diritti dei cittadini, e non fare il male sotto pretesto del pubblico bene. 35. "Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary?"(19). Hereby, then, it lies in the power of a ruler to benefit every class in the State, and amongst the rest to promote to the utmost the interests of the poor; and this in virtue of his office, and without being open to suspicion of undue interference - since it is the province of the commonwealth to serve the common good. Rest (combined with religious observances) disposes man to forget for a while the business of his everyday life, to turn his thoughts to things heavenly, and to the worship which he so strictly owes to the eternal Godhead. 12) Ora, i socialisti, sostituendo alla provvidenza dei genitori quella dello Stato, vanno contro la giustizia naturale e disciolgono la compagine delle famiglie. Pope Leo XIII critiques socialism as well as unbridled capitalism. 32, a. Nature itself would urge him to this. They have taken up the cause of the working man, and have spared no efforts to better the condition both of families and individuals; to infuse a spirit of equity into the mutual relations of employers and employed; to keep before the eyes of both classes the precepts of duty and the laws of the Gospel - that Gospel which, by inculcating self restraint, keeps men within the bounds of moderation, and tends to establish harmony among the divergent interests and the various classes which compose the body politic. The fact that God has given the earth for the use and enjoyment of the whole human race can in no way be a bar to the owning of private property. Impari a venerare e amare la Chiesa, madre comune di tutti, come pure a obbedire ai precetti di lei, e a frequentare i sacramenti, mezzi divini di giustificazione e di santità. Quello che veramente è indegno dell'uomo è di abusarne come di cosa a scopo di guadagno, né stimarlo più di quello che valgono i suoi nervi e le sue forze. "What doth it profit a man, if he gain the whole world and suffer the loss of his soul? It cannot, however, be doubted that to attain the purpose we are treating of, not only the Church, but all human agencies, must concur. Ed è facile capire come questa alacrità giovi moltissimo ad accrescere la produzione del suolo e la ricchezza della nazione. 64. RERUM NOVARUM LETTERA ENCICLICA DI PAPA LEONE XIII. 36. They would substitute in its stead a system of relief organized by the State. It discusses the relationships and mutual duties between labor and capital, as well as government and its citizens. Such was the ardor of brotherly love among the earliest Christians that numbers of those who were in better circumstances despoiled themselves of their possessions in order to relieve their brethren; whence "neither was there any one needy among them. Asociación Católica de Dirigentes, – 59 pages . Of this beneficent transformation Jesus Christ was at once the first cause and the final end; as from Him all came, so to Him was all to be brought back. Immortale Dei). Now, in no other way can a father effect this except by the ownership of productive property, which he can transmit to his children by inheritance. Se persevereremo, regneremo insieme (2 Tim 2,12). It is the Church that insists, on the authority of the Gospel, upon those teachings whereby the conflict can be brought to an end, or rendered, at least, far less bitter; the Church uses her efforts not only to enlighten the mind, but to direct by her precepts the life and conduct of each and all; the Church improves and betters the condition of the working man by means of numerous organizations; does her best to enlist the services of all classes in discussing and endeavoring to further in the most practical way, the interests of the working classes; and considers that for this purpose recourse should be had, in due measure and degree, to the intervention of the law and of State authority. Rerum novarum (from its first two words, Latin for "of revolutionary change"), or Rights and Duties of Capital and Labor, is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on 15 May 1891.It was an open letter, passed to all Catholic bishops, that addressed the condition of the working classes. I read Plato’s Republic as carefully as I could and Thomas More’s Utopia, not to mention a few dystopias, and they left a felling I was reading fantasies. 20. Were these precepts carefully obeyed and followed out, would they not be sufficient of themselves to keep under all strife and all its causes? Si danno però casi che rendono legittimo e doveroso il divieto. This principle of the preferential option for the poor was developed more fully in writings of later popes. Age gives way to age, but the events of one century are wonderfully like those of another, for they are directed by the providence of God, who overrules the course of history in accordance with His purposes in creating the race of man. 1. Nessuno, Certo, é tenuto a soccorrere gli altri con le cose necessarie a sé e ai suoi, anzi neppure con ciò che è necessario alla convivenza e al decoro del proprio  stato, perché nessuno deve vivere in modo non conveniente (S. Th. La vita di quaggiù, benché buona e desiderabile, non è il fine per cui noi siamo stati creati, ma via e mezzo a perfezionare la vita dello spirito con la cognizione del vero e con la pratica del bene. The first work to point out the dangers of Karl Marx's ideology of Socialism and Communism from the Catholic perspective. There are definitely some awesome quotes and I wish more people would read this. Ora, a darci questi beni è di necessità ed efficacia somma l'opera e l'arte dei proletari, o si applichi all'agricoltura, o si eserciti nelle officine. But it will be easy for Christian working men to solve it aright if they will form associations, choose wise guides, and follow on the path which with so much advantage to themselves and the common weal was trodden by their fathers before them. [26] Other examples of private societies are families, business partnerships, and religious orders. 37. Let this be carefully taken to heart by those whose office it is to safeguard the public welfare. It discussed the relationships and mutual duties between labor and capital, as well as go Ricordiamo fatti e cose poste fuori di ogni dubbio: cioè che per opera del cristianesimo fu trasformata da capo a fondo la società; che questa trasformazione fu un vero progresso del genere umano, anzi una risurrezione dalla morte alla vita morale, e un perfezionamento non mai visto per l'innanzi né sperabile maggiore per l'avvenire; e finalmente che Gesù Cristo è il principio e il termine di questi benefizi, i quali, scaturiti da lui, a lui vanno riferiti. Broken in spirit and worn down in body, how many of them would gladly free themselves from such galling bondage! We do not judge it possible to enter into minute particulars touching the subject of organization; this must depend on national character, on practice and experience, on the nature and aim of the work to be done, on the scope of the various trades and employments, and on other circumstances of fact and of time - all of which should be carefully considered. Che se l'uomo, se la famiglia, entrando a far parte della società civile, trovassero nello Stato non aiuto, ma offesa, non tutela, ma diminuzione dei propri diritti, la civile convivenza sarebbe piuttosto da fuggire che da desiderare. L'operaio e il padrone allora formino pure di comune consenso il patto e nominatamente la quantità della mercede; vi entra però sempre un elemento di giustizia naturale, anteriore e superiore alla libera volontà dei contraenti, ed è che il quantitativo della mercede non deve essere inferiore al sostentamento dell'operaio, frugale si intende, e di retti costumi. Summa theologiae, IIa-Ilae, q. lxi, are. Now, when man thus turns the activity of his mind and the strength of his body toward procuring the fruits of nature, by such act he makes his own that portion of nature's field which he cultivates - that portion on which he leaves, as it were, the impress of his personality; and it cannot but be just that he should possess that portion as his very own, and have a right to hold it without any one being justified in violating that right. Guidelines to maintain the respect and dignity of the person in the workplace would therefore indicate: The pope specifically mentioned work in the mines, and outdoor work in certain seasons, as dangerous to health and requiring additional protections. Of these facts there cannot be any shadow of doubt: for instance, that civil society was renovated in every part by Christian institutions; that in the strength of that renewal the human race was lifted up to better things-nay, that it was brought back from death to life, and to so excellent a life that nothing more perfect had been known before, or will come to be known in the ages that have yet to be. Poiché Iddio non ci ha creati per questi beni fragili e caduchi, ma per quelli celesti ed eterni; e la terra ci fu data da Lui come luogo di esilio, non come patria. III-II, q. "Rerum Novarum." Associations of every kind, and especially those of working men, are now far more common than heretofore. Apologia secunda, 39, (Apologeticus, cap. A tale spettacolo di vita e di condotta si dileguò ogni pregiudizio, ammutolì la maldicenza dei malevoli, e le menzogne di una inveterata superstizione cedettero il posto alla verità cristiana. . Se dunque alla società o a qualche sua parte è stato recato o sovrasta un danno che non si possa in altro modo riparare o impedire, si rende necessario l'intervento dello Stato. Basta su ciò accennar di passaggio agli esempi antichi. Perciò agli operai, che sono nel numero dei deboli e dei bisognosi, lo Stato deve di preferenza rivolgere le cure e le provvidenze sue. If through necessity or fear of a worse evil the workman accept harder conditions because an employer or contractor will afford him no better, he is made the victim of force and injustice.[10]. 23. To Our Venerable Brethren the Patriarchs, Primates,Archbishops, Bishops, and other ordinaries. L'enciclica fu resa possibile dagli scritti dei precursori del personalismo economico: i padri gesuiti Luigi Taparelli D'Azeglio e Matteo Liberatore. Every minister of holy religion must bring to the struggle the full energy of his mind and all his power of endurance. Leo encouraged the wealthy to meet their own needs, the needs of their families, and to maintain a "becoming" standard of living. Three stars for actual enjoyment, one extra star allowed for its historical importance. In short, he argues not for a minimum wage, but for a living wage, though not utilizing either of these terms. They are reminded that, according to natural reason and Christian philosophy, working for gain is creditable, not shameful, to a man, since it enables him to earn an honorable livelihood; but to misuse men as though they were things in the pursuit of gain, or to value them solely for their physical powers - that is truly shameful and inhuman. Il fine della società civile è universale, perché è quello che riguarda il bene comune, a cui tutti e singoli i cittadini hanno diritto nella debita proporzione. Dato a Roma presso san Pietro, il giorno 15 maggio 1891, anno decimo del nostro pontificato. Così, certe specie di lavoro non si addicono alle donne, fatte da natura per í lavori domestici, í quali grandemente proteggono l'onestà del sesso debole, e hanno naturale corrispondenza con l'educazione dei figli e il benessere della casa. But in the present letter, the responsibility of the apostolic office urges Us to treat the question of set purpose and in detail, in order that no misapprehension may exist as to the principles which truth and justice dictate for its settlement. A tal fine vediamo che spesso si radunano dei congressi, ove uomini saggi si comunicano le idee, uniscono le forze, si consultano intorno agli espedienti migliori, Altri s'ingegnano di stringere opportunamente in società le varie classi operaie; le aiutano col consiglio e i mezzi e procurano loro un lavoro onesto e redditizio. hom 9, n. 7). Ciò riesce più evidente se si penetra maggiormente nell'umana natura. L'esercizio e l'uso l'affina, a condizione però che di quando in quando venga sospeso, per dar luogo al riposo. Rerum Novarum is considered a foundational text of modern Catholic social teaching. (Mat 16,26). As regards the State, the interests of all, whether high or low, are equal. In presence of such mode of life and such example, prejudice gave way, the tongue of malevolence was silenced, and the lying legends of ancient superstition little by little yielded to Christian truth. Daily labor, therefore, should be so regulated as not to be protracted over longer hours than strength admits. Rerum Novarum: encíclica de Papa Leon XIII. They are reminded that, according to natural reason and Christian philosophy, working for gain is creditable, not shameful, to a man, since it enables him to earn an honorable livelihood; but to misuse men as though they were things in the pursuit of gain, or to value them solely for their physical powers—that is truly shameful and inhuman. To this kind of argument a fair-minded man will not easily or entirely assent; it is not complete, for there are important considerations which it leaves out of account altogether. 41. seeketh not her own, . 61, a. Papa ( Lleó XIII). 1Tim 6,10), veri flagelli che rendono misero l'uomo nella abbondanza stessa di ogni cosa; contenti di una vita frugale, suppliscono alla scarsezza del censo col risparmio, lontani dai vizi, che non solo consumano le piccole, ma anche le grandi sostanze, e mandano in rovina i più lauti patrimoni. E ciò torna a vantaggio sia dei privati che del civile consorzio, perché la vita sociale abbisogna di attitudini varie e di uffici diversi, e l'impulso principale, che muove gli uomini ad esercitare tali uffici, è la disparità dello stato. 29. 30. 62. Visitata da decine di migliaia di persone, tra il 16 novembre 1991 e il 1º marzo 1992, comprendeva opere, tra gli altri, di Mosè Bianchi, Giovanni Fattori, Plinio Nomellini, Vincenzo Cabianca, Camille Corot, Giuseppe De Nittis, Jean François Millet. 54. The entire time I was reading this I kept thinking to myself: "There is nothing new under the sun.". Thomas Aquinas, On the Governance of Rulers, 1, 15 (Opera omnia, ed. She lays down precepts yet more perfect, and tries to bind class to class in friendliness and good feeling. Ma giova discendere espressamente ad alcuni particolari di maggiore importanza. Quando tali statuti sono volontariamente abbracciati, si é già sufficientemente provveduto al benessere materiale e morale delle classi inferiori; e le società cattoliche potranno esercitare non piccola influenza sulla prosperità della stessa società civile. To remedy these wrongs the socialists, working on the poor man's envy of the rich, are striving to do away with private property, and contend that individual possessions should become the common property of all, to be administered by the State or by municipal bodies. Poiché, soppresse nel secolo passato le corporazioni di arti e mestieri, senza nulla sostituire in loro vece, nel tempo stesso che le istituzioni e le leggi venivano allontanandosi dallo spirito cristiano, avvenne che poco a poco gli operai rimanessero soli e indifesi in balda della cupidigia dei padroni e di una sfrenata concorrenza. 32. In their religious aspect they claim rightly to be responsible to the Church alone. Avendo a cuore la tutela dei diritti delle donne e dei fanciulli, che spesso erano i lavoratori più sfruttati, l'enciclica propone anche di riservare alle donne mansioni a loro consone, anche dal punto di vista morale e del loro ruolo nell'educazione della prole spesso numerosa. Autore: MAGGIO . I governi vi si adoperino con buone leggi e saggi provvedimenti; i capitalisti e padroni abbiano sempre presenti i loro doveri; i proletari, che vi sono direttamente interessati, facciano, nei limiti del giusto, quanto possono; e poiché, come abbiamo detto da principio, il vero e radicale rimedio non può venire che dalla religione, si persuadano tutti quanti della necessità di tornare alla vita cristiana, senza la quale gli stessi argomenti stimati più efficaci, si dimostreranno scarsi al bisogno. 21. As for those who possess not the gifts of fortune, they are taught by the Church that in God's sight poverty is no disgrace, and that there is nothing to be ashamed of in earning their bread by labor. Themomentous gravity of the state of things now obtaining fills every mind withpainful apprehension; wise men are discussing it; practical men are proposingschemes; popular meetings, legislatures, and rulers of nations are all busiedwith it - actually there is no question which has taken deeper hold on thepublic mind. 36). For, the result of civil change and revolution has been to divide cities into two classes separated by a wide chasm. 45. Most of all it is essential, where the passion of greed is so strong, to keep the populace within the line of duty; for, if all may justly strive to better their condition, neither justice nor the common good allows any individual to seize upon that which belongs to another, or, under the futile and shallow pretext of equality, to lay violent hands on other people's possessions. Tutti quelli che vi sono interessati debbono concorrervi ciascuno per la sua parte: e ciò ad esempio di quell'ordine provvidenziale che governa il mondo; poiché d'ordinario si vede che ogni buon effetto è prodotto dall'armoniosa cooperazione di tutte le cause da cui esso dipende. Pope Leo provides a sort of "3rd way" between the extremes of Marxist Communism and Nationalist Fascism, focusing instead on the priority of the family--rather than prioritizing the state or the collective. Pope Leo makes a strong case for the "preferential option for the poor," a concept which has had a major impact in the 20th and 21st centuries. Defraudare poi la dovuta mercede è colpa così enorme che grida vendetta al cospetto di Dio. II-II, q. Questo, secondo l'insegnamento di Gesù Cristo, é il carattere che distingue il cristiano dal pagano: I pagani cercano tutte queste cose... voi cercate prima di tutto il regno di Dio e la sua giustizia, e gli altri beni vi saranno dati per giunta (Mat 6,32-33). Exclude the idea of futurity, and forthwith the very notion of what is good and right would perish; nay, the whole scheme of the universe would become a dark and unfathomable mystery. 16. Public institutions and the laws set aside the ancient religion. They showed themselves industrious, hard-working, assiduous, and peaceful, ruled by justice, and, above all, bound together in brotherly love. . They were the means of affording not only many advantages to the workmen, but in no small degree of promoting the advancement of art, as numerous monuments remain to bear witness. Nay, God Himself seems to incline rather to those who suffer misfortune; for Jesus Christ calls the poor "blessed";(20) He lovingly invites those in labor and grief to come to Him for solace;(21) and He displays the tenderest charity toward the lowly and the oppressed. She strives to influence the mind and the heart so that all may willingly yield themselves to be formed and guided by the commandments of God. La proprietà privata sancita dalle leggi umane e divine. Thus, by degrees, came into existence the patrimony which the Church has guarded with religious care as the inheritance of the poor. Be the first to ask a question about Rerum Novarum. Poiché, sebbene così prepotente sia negli uomini la forza dei pregiudizi e delle passioni, nondimeno, se la pravità del volere non ha spento in essi il senso dell'onesto, non potranno non provare un sentimento benevolo verso gli operai quando li scorgono laboriosi, moderati, pronti a mettere l'onestà al di sopra del lucro e la coscienza del dovere innanzi a ogni altra cosa. Si stabilisca dunque in primo luogo questo principio, che si deve sopportare la condizione propria dell'umanità: togliere dal mondo le disparità sociali, è cosa impossibile. You must create a Free Account in order to download or read online book. Of primary concern is the need for some amelioration of "the misery and wretchedness pressing so unjustly on the majority of the working class. enciclica di papa Leone XIII del 15 maggio 1891 sulla “questione sociale”. He does not argue for a pure capitalist system where market determines wages, but lays out a Biblical view of what wages must be in order to assure. Se uno cade, è sostenuto dall'altro. Non possono allo stesso modo e con gli stessi uffici cooperare al bene comune gli artigiani; tuttavia vi concorrono anch'essi potentemente con i loro servizi, benché in modo indiretto. "Of that which remaineth, give alms. Doubtless, this most serious question demands the attention and the efforts of others besides ourselves - to wit, of the rulers of States, of employers of labor, of the wealthy, aye, of the working classes themselves, for whom We are pleading. Se Mi Innamoro Dei Ricchi E Poveri Sanremo, Pinocchio 2002 Streaming, C'era Una Volta A Hollywood Cast, Emozioni Accordi Skitarrate, Quartiere 5 Firenze Oraritgr Liguria Giornalisti, Eventi Italia Agosto 2020, Weekend Isole Pontine,

papa leone xiii rerum novarum

We’d love your help. The richer class have many ways of shielding themselves, and stand less in need of help from the State; whereas the mass of the poor have no resources of their own to fall back upon, and must chiefly depend upon the assistance of the State. Now a State chiefly prospers and thrives through moral rule, well-regulated family life, respect for religion and justice, the moderation and fair imposing of public taxes, the progress of the arts and of trade, the abundant yield of the land-through everything, in fact, which makes the citizens better and happier. 13. But every precaution should be taken not to violate the rights of individuals and not to impose unreasonable regulations under pretense of public benefit. (Mar 6,3) Mirando la divinità di questo esempio, si comprende più facilmente che la vera dignità e grandezza dell'uomo è tutta morale, ossia riposta nella virtù; che la virtù è patrimonio comune, conseguibile ugualmente dai grandi e dai piccoli, dai ricchi e dai proletari; che solo alle opere virtuose, in chiunque si trovino, è serbato il premio dell'eterna beatitudine. “Rerum Novarum” is a prescription for a Utopia second to none. Seek ye first the Kingdom of God and His justice: and all these things shall be added unto you. Need another excuse to treat yourself to a new book this week? 42. Non è giusto, come abbiamo detto, che il cittadino e la famiglia siano assorbiti dallo Stato: è giusto invece che si lasci all'uno e all'altra tanta indipendenza di operare quanta se ne può, salvo il bene comune e gli altrui diritti. Of these duties, the following bind the proletarian and the worker: fully and faithfully to perform the work which has been freely and equitably agreed upon; never to injure the property, nor to outrage the person, of an employer; never to resort to violence in defending their own cause, nor to engage in riot or disorder; and to have nothing to do with men of evil principles, who work upon the people with artful promises of great results, and excite foolish hopes which usually end in useless regrets and grievous loss. A brilliant entry-point of the Roman Church to the social debates of the 19th and 20th centuries. 13, a. In like manner, if within the precincts of the household there occur grave disturbance of mutual rights, public authority should intervene to force each party to yield to the other its proper due; for this is not to deprive citizens of their rights, but justly and properly to safeguard and strengthen them. Lo Stato e il suo intervento nella famiglia. Qui però deve arrestarsi lo Stato; la natura non gli consente di andare oltre. They alone can reach the innermost heart and conscience, and bring men to act from a motive of duty, to control their passions and appetites, to love God and their fellow men with a love that is outstanding and of the highest degree and to break down courageously every barrier which blocks the way to virtue. Of these duties, the following bind the proletarian and the worker: fully and faithfully to perform the work which has been freely and equitably agreed upon; never to injure the property, nor to outrage the person, of an employer; never to resort to violence in defending their own cause, nor to engage in riot or disorder; and to have nothing to do with men of evil principles, who work upon the people with artful promises of great results, and excite foolish hopes which usually end in useless regrets and grievous loss. If through necessity or fear of a worse evil the workman accept harder conditions because an employer or contractor will afford him no better, he is made the victim of force and injustice. This is one of the chief points of distinction between man and the animal creation, for the brute has no power of self direction, but is governed by two main instincts, which keep his powers on the alert, impel him to develop them in a fitting manner, and stimulate and determine him to action without any power of choice. The bishops, on their part, bestow their ready good will and support; and with their approval and guidance many members of the clergy, both secular and regular, labor assiduously in behalf of the spiritual interest of the members of such associations. While it does outline an almost fascist-like society(class collaboration). Lo spirito è quello che porta scolpita in sé l'immagine e la somiglianza divina, ed in cui risiede quella superiorità in virtù della quale fu imposto all'uomo di signoreggiare le creature inferiori, e di far servire all'utilità sua le terre tutte ed i mari. 45. Now, it is to the interest of the community, as well as of the individual, that peace and good order should be maintained; that all things should be carried on in accordance with God's laws and those of nature; that the discipline of family life should be observed and that religion should be obeyed; that a high standard of morality should prevail, both in public and private life; that justice should be held sacred and that no one should injure another with impunity; that the members of the commonwealth should grow up to man's estate strong and robust, and capable, if need be, of guarding and defending their country. Rerum Novarum by Leone XIII is Christianity Leone XIII (Vincenzo Gioacchino dei conti Pecci, Carpineto Romano 1810 - Roma 1903) è stato il 256º papa della storia della Chiesa Cattolica. Si commette ingiustizia solo quando o il padrone non paga l'intera mercede o l'operaio non presta tutta l'opera pattuita; e solo a tutela di questi diritti, e non per altre ragioni, è lecito l'intervento dello Stato. 22. Tutte queste ragioni danno diritto a concludere che la comunanza dei beni proposta dal socialismo va del tutto rigettata, perché nuoce a quei medesimi a cui si deve recar soccorso, offende i diritti naturali di ciascuno, altera gli uffici dello Stato e turba la pace comune. And there are not wanting Catholics blessed with affluence, who have, as it were, cast in their lot with the wage-earners, and who have spent large sums in founding and widely spreading benefit and insurance societies, by means of which the working man may without difficulty acquire through his labor not only many present advantages, but also the certainty of honorable support in days to come. Quando società particolari si prefiggono un fine apertamente contrario all'onestà, alla giustizia, alla sicurezza del consorzio civile, legittimamente vi si oppone lo Stato, o vietando che si formino o sciogliendole se sono formate; è necessario però procedere in ciò con somma cautela per non invadere i diritti dei cittadini, e non fare il male sotto pretesto del pubblico bene. 35. "Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary?"(19). Hereby, then, it lies in the power of a ruler to benefit every class in the State, and amongst the rest to promote to the utmost the interests of the poor; and this in virtue of his office, and without being open to suspicion of undue interference - since it is the province of the commonwealth to serve the common good. Rest (combined with religious observances) disposes man to forget for a while the business of his everyday life, to turn his thoughts to things heavenly, and to the worship which he so strictly owes to the eternal Godhead. 12) Ora, i socialisti, sostituendo alla provvidenza dei genitori quella dello Stato, vanno contro la giustizia naturale e disciolgono la compagine delle famiglie. Pope Leo XIII critiques socialism as well as unbridled capitalism. 32, a. Nature itself would urge him to this. They have taken up the cause of the working man, and have spared no efforts to better the condition both of families and individuals; to infuse a spirit of equity into the mutual relations of employers and employed; to keep before the eyes of both classes the precepts of duty and the laws of the Gospel - that Gospel which, by inculcating self restraint, keeps men within the bounds of moderation, and tends to establish harmony among the divergent interests and the various classes which compose the body politic. The fact that God has given the earth for the use and enjoyment of the whole human race can in no way be a bar to the owning of private property. Impari a venerare e amare la Chiesa, madre comune di tutti, come pure a obbedire ai precetti di lei, e a frequentare i sacramenti, mezzi divini di giustificazione e di santità. Quello che veramente è indegno dell'uomo è di abusarne come di cosa a scopo di guadagno, né stimarlo più di quello che valgono i suoi nervi e le sue forze. "What doth it profit a man, if he gain the whole world and suffer the loss of his soul? It cannot, however, be doubted that to attain the purpose we are treating of, not only the Church, but all human agencies, must concur. Ed è facile capire come questa alacrità giovi moltissimo ad accrescere la produzione del suolo e la ricchezza della nazione. 64. RERUM NOVARUM LETTERA ENCICLICA DI PAPA LEONE XIII. 36. They would substitute in its stead a system of relief organized by the State. It discusses the relationships and mutual duties between labor and capital, as well as government and its citizens. Such was the ardor of brotherly love among the earliest Christians that numbers of those who were in better circumstances despoiled themselves of their possessions in order to relieve their brethren; whence "neither was there any one needy among them. Asociación Católica de Dirigentes, – 59 pages . Of this beneficent transformation Jesus Christ was at once the first cause and the final end; as from Him all came, so to Him was all to be brought back. Immortale Dei). Now, in no other way can a father effect this except by the ownership of productive property, which he can transmit to his children by inheritance. Se persevereremo, regneremo insieme (2 Tim 2,12). It is the Church that insists, on the authority of the Gospel, upon those teachings whereby the conflict can be brought to an end, or rendered, at least, far less bitter; the Church uses her efforts not only to enlighten the mind, but to direct by her precepts the life and conduct of each and all; the Church improves and betters the condition of the working man by means of numerous organizations; does her best to enlist the services of all classes in discussing and endeavoring to further in the most practical way, the interests of the working classes; and considers that for this purpose recourse should be had, in due measure and degree, to the intervention of the law and of State authority. Rerum novarum (from its first two words, Latin for "of revolutionary change"), or Rights and Duties of Capital and Labor, is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on 15 May 1891.It was an open letter, passed to all Catholic bishops, that addressed the condition of the working classes. I read Plato’s Republic as carefully as I could and Thomas More’s Utopia, not to mention a few dystopias, and they left a felling I was reading fantasies. 20. Were these precepts carefully obeyed and followed out, would they not be sufficient of themselves to keep under all strife and all its causes? Si danno però casi che rendono legittimo e doveroso il divieto. This principle of the preferential option for the poor was developed more fully in writings of later popes. Age gives way to age, but the events of one century are wonderfully like those of another, for they are directed by the providence of God, who overrules the course of history in accordance with His purposes in creating the race of man. 1. Nessuno, Certo, é tenuto a soccorrere gli altri con le cose necessarie a sé e ai suoi, anzi neppure con ciò che è necessario alla convivenza e al decoro del proprio  stato, perché nessuno deve vivere in modo non conveniente (S. Th. La vita di quaggiù, benché buona e desiderabile, non è il fine per cui noi siamo stati creati, ma via e mezzo a perfezionare la vita dello spirito con la cognizione del vero e con la pratica del bene. The first work to point out the dangers of Karl Marx's ideology of Socialism and Communism from the Catholic perspective. There are definitely some awesome quotes and I wish more people would read this. Ora, a darci questi beni è di necessità ed efficacia somma l'opera e l'arte dei proletari, o si applichi all'agricoltura, o si eserciti nelle officine. But it will be easy for Christian working men to solve it aright if they will form associations, choose wise guides, and follow on the path which with so much advantage to themselves and the common weal was trodden by their fathers before them. [26] Other examples of private societies are families, business partnerships, and religious orders. 37. Let this be carefully taken to heart by those whose office it is to safeguard the public welfare. It discussed the relationships and mutual duties between labor and capital, as well as go Ricordiamo fatti e cose poste fuori di ogni dubbio: cioè che per opera del cristianesimo fu trasformata da capo a fondo la società; che questa trasformazione fu un vero progresso del genere umano, anzi una risurrezione dalla morte alla vita morale, e un perfezionamento non mai visto per l'innanzi né sperabile maggiore per l'avvenire; e finalmente che Gesù Cristo è il principio e il termine di questi benefizi, i quali, scaturiti da lui, a lui vanno riferiti. Broken in spirit and worn down in body, how many of them would gladly free themselves from such galling bondage! We do not judge it possible to enter into minute particulars touching the subject of organization; this must depend on national character, on practice and experience, on the nature and aim of the work to be done, on the scope of the various trades and employments, and on other circumstances of fact and of time - all of which should be carefully considered. Che se l'uomo, se la famiglia, entrando a far parte della società civile, trovassero nello Stato non aiuto, ma offesa, non tutela, ma diminuzione dei propri diritti, la civile convivenza sarebbe piuttosto da fuggire che da desiderare. L'operaio e il padrone allora formino pure di comune consenso il patto e nominatamente la quantità della mercede; vi entra però sempre un elemento di giustizia naturale, anteriore e superiore alla libera volontà dei contraenti, ed è che il quantitativo della mercede non deve essere inferiore al sostentamento dell'operaio, frugale si intende, e di retti costumi. Summa theologiae, IIa-Ilae, q. lxi, are. Now, when man thus turns the activity of his mind and the strength of his body toward procuring the fruits of nature, by such act he makes his own that portion of nature's field which he cultivates - that portion on which he leaves, as it were, the impress of his personality; and it cannot but be just that he should possess that portion as his very own, and have a right to hold it without any one being justified in violating that right. Guidelines to maintain the respect and dignity of the person in the workplace would therefore indicate: The pope specifically mentioned work in the mines, and outdoor work in certain seasons, as dangerous to health and requiring additional protections. Of these facts there cannot be any shadow of doubt: for instance, that civil society was renovated in every part by Christian institutions; that in the strength of that renewal the human race was lifted up to better things-nay, that it was brought back from death to life, and to so excellent a life that nothing more perfect had been known before, or will come to be known in the ages that have yet to be. Poiché Iddio non ci ha creati per questi beni fragili e caduchi, ma per quelli celesti ed eterni; e la terra ci fu data da Lui come luogo di esilio, non come patria. III-II, q. "Rerum Novarum." Associations of every kind, and especially those of working men, are now far more common than heretofore. Apologia secunda, 39, (Apologeticus, cap. A tale spettacolo di vita e di condotta si dileguò ogni pregiudizio, ammutolì la maldicenza dei malevoli, e le menzogne di una inveterata superstizione cedettero il posto alla verità cristiana. . Se dunque alla società o a qualche sua parte è stato recato o sovrasta un danno che non si possa in altro modo riparare o impedire, si rende necessario l'intervento dello Stato. Basta su ciò accennar di passaggio agli esempi antichi. Perciò agli operai, che sono nel numero dei deboli e dei bisognosi, lo Stato deve di preferenza rivolgere le cure e le provvidenze sue. If through necessity or fear of a worse evil the workman accept harder conditions because an employer or contractor will afford him no better, he is made the victim of force and injustice.[10]. 23. To Our Venerable Brethren the Patriarchs, Primates,Archbishops, Bishops, and other ordinaries. L'enciclica fu resa possibile dagli scritti dei precursori del personalismo economico: i padri gesuiti Luigi Taparelli D'Azeglio e Matteo Liberatore. Every minister of holy religion must bring to the struggle the full energy of his mind and all his power of endurance. Leo encouraged the wealthy to meet their own needs, the needs of their families, and to maintain a "becoming" standard of living. Three stars for actual enjoyment, one extra star allowed for its historical importance. In short, he argues not for a minimum wage, but for a living wage, though not utilizing either of these terms. They are reminded that, according to natural reason and Christian philosophy, working for gain is creditable, not shameful, to a man, since it enables him to earn an honorable livelihood; but to misuse men as though they were things in the pursuit of gain, or to value them solely for their physical powers - that is truly shameful and inhuman. Il fine della società civile è universale, perché è quello che riguarda il bene comune, a cui tutti e singoli i cittadini hanno diritto nella debita proporzione. Dato a Roma presso san Pietro, il giorno 15 maggio 1891, anno decimo del nostro pontificato. Così, certe specie di lavoro non si addicono alle donne, fatte da natura per í lavori domestici, í quali grandemente proteggono l'onestà del sesso debole, e hanno naturale corrispondenza con l'educazione dei figli e il benessere della casa. But in the present letter, the responsibility of the apostolic office urges Us to treat the question of set purpose and in detail, in order that no misapprehension may exist as to the principles which truth and justice dictate for its settlement. A tal fine vediamo che spesso si radunano dei congressi, ove uomini saggi si comunicano le idee, uniscono le forze, si consultano intorno agli espedienti migliori, Altri s'ingegnano di stringere opportunamente in società le varie classi operaie; le aiutano col consiglio e i mezzi e procurano loro un lavoro onesto e redditizio. hom 9, n. 7). Ciò riesce più evidente se si penetra maggiormente nell'umana natura. L'esercizio e l'uso l'affina, a condizione però che di quando in quando venga sospeso, per dar luogo al riposo. Rerum Novarum is considered a foundational text of modern Catholic social teaching. (Mat 16,26). As regards the State, the interests of all, whether high or low, are equal. In presence of such mode of life and such example, prejudice gave way, the tongue of malevolence was silenced, and the lying legends of ancient superstition little by little yielded to Christian truth. Daily labor, therefore, should be so regulated as not to be protracted over longer hours than strength admits. Rerum Novarum: encíclica de Papa Leon XIII. They are reminded that, according to natural reason and Christian philosophy, working for gain is creditable, not shameful, to a man, since it enables him to earn an honorable livelihood; but to misuse men as though they were things in the pursuit of gain, or to value them solely for their physical powers—that is truly shameful and inhuman. To this kind of argument a fair-minded man will not easily or entirely assent; it is not complete, for there are important considerations which it leaves out of account altogether. 41. seeketh not her own, . 61, a. Papa ( Lleó XIII). 1Tim 6,10), veri flagelli che rendono misero l'uomo nella abbondanza stessa di ogni cosa; contenti di una vita frugale, suppliscono alla scarsezza del censo col risparmio, lontani dai vizi, che non solo consumano le piccole, ma anche le grandi sostanze, e mandano in rovina i più lauti patrimoni. E ciò torna a vantaggio sia dei privati che del civile consorzio, perché la vita sociale abbisogna di attitudini varie e di uffici diversi, e l'impulso principale, che muove gli uomini ad esercitare tali uffici, è la disparità dello stato. 29. 30. 62. Visitata da decine di migliaia di persone, tra il 16 novembre 1991 e il 1º marzo 1992, comprendeva opere, tra gli altri, di Mosè Bianchi, Giovanni Fattori, Plinio Nomellini, Vincenzo Cabianca, Camille Corot, Giuseppe De Nittis, Jean François Millet. 54. The entire time I was reading this I kept thinking to myself: "There is nothing new under the sun.". Thomas Aquinas, On the Governance of Rulers, 1, 15 (Opera omnia, ed. She lays down precepts yet more perfect, and tries to bind class to class in friendliness and good feeling. Ma giova discendere espressamente ad alcuni particolari di maggiore importanza. Quando tali statuti sono volontariamente abbracciati, si é già sufficientemente provveduto al benessere materiale e morale delle classi inferiori; e le società cattoliche potranno esercitare non piccola influenza sulla prosperità della stessa società civile. To remedy these wrongs the socialists, working on the poor man's envy of the rich, are striving to do away with private property, and contend that individual possessions should become the common property of all, to be administered by the State or by municipal bodies. Poiché, soppresse nel secolo passato le corporazioni di arti e mestieri, senza nulla sostituire in loro vece, nel tempo stesso che le istituzioni e le leggi venivano allontanandosi dallo spirito cristiano, avvenne che poco a poco gli operai rimanessero soli e indifesi in balda della cupidigia dei padroni e di una sfrenata concorrenza. 32. In their religious aspect they claim rightly to be responsible to the Church alone. Avendo a cuore la tutela dei diritti delle donne e dei fanciulli, che spesso erano i lavoratori più sfruttati, l'enciclica propone anche di riservare alle donne mansioni a loro consone, anche dal punto di vista morale e del loro ruolo nell'educazione della prole spesso numerosa. Autore: MAGGIO . I governi vi si adoperino con buone leggi e saggi provvedimenti; i capitalisti e padroni abbiano sempre presenti i loro doveri; i proletari, che vi sono direttamente interessati, facciano, nei limiti del giusto, quanto possono; e poiché, come abbiamo detto da principio, il vero e radicale rimedio non può venire che dalla religione, si persuadano tutti quanti della necessità di tornare alla vita cristiana, senza la quale gli stessi argomenti stimati più efficaci, si dimostreranno scarsi al bisogno. 21. As for those who possess not the gifts of fortune, they are taught by the Church that in God's sight poverty is no disgrace, and that there is nothing to be ashamed of in earning their bread by labor. Themomentous gravity of the state of things now obtaining fills every mind withpainful apprehension; wise men are discussing it; practical men are proposingschemes; popular meetings, legislatures, and rulers of nations are all busiedwith it - actually there is no question which has taken deeper hold on thepublic mind. 36). For, the result of civil change and revolution has been to divide cities into two classes separated by a wide chasm. 45. Most of all it is essential, where the passion of greed is so strong, to keep the populace within the line of duty; for, if all may justly strive to better their condition, neither justice nor the common good allows any individual to seize upon that which belongs to another, or, under the futile and shallow pretext of equality, to lay violent hands on other people's possessions. Tutti quelli che vi sono interessati debbono concorrervi ciascuno per la sua parte: e ciò ad esempio di quell'ordine provvidenziale che governa il mondo; poiché d'ordinario si vede che ogni buon effetto è prodotto dall'armoniosa cooperazione di tutte le cause da cui esso dipende. Pope Leo provides a sort of "3rd way" between the extremes of Marxist Communism and Nationalist Fascism, focusing instead on the priority of the family--rather than prioritizing the state or the collective. Pope Leo makes a strong case for the "preferential option for the poor," a concept which has had a major impact in the 20th and 21st centuries. Defraudare poi la dovuta mercede è colpa così enorme che grida vendetta al cospetto di Dio. II-II, q. Questo, secondo l'insegnamento di Gesù Cristo, é il carattere che distingue il cristiano dal pagano: I pagani cercano tutte queste cose... voi cercate prima di tutto il regno di Dio e la sua giustizia, e gli altri beni vi saranno dati per giunta (Mat 6,32-33). Exclude the idea of futurity, and forthwith the very notion of what is good and right would perish; nay, the whole scheme of the universe would become a dark and unfathomable mystery. 16. Public institutions and the laws set aside the ancient religion. They showed themselves industrious, hard-working, assiduous, and peaceful, ruled by justice, and, above all, bound together in brotherly love. . They were the means of affording not only many advantages to the workmen, but in no small degree of promoting the advancement of art, as numerous monuments remain to bear witness. Nay, God Himself seems to incline rather to those who suffer misfortune; for Jesus Christ calls the poor "blessed";(20) He lovingly invites those in labor and grief to come to Him for solace;(21) and He displays the tenderest charity toward the lowly and the oppressed. She strives to influence the mind and the heart so that all may willingly yield themselves to be formed and guided by the commandments of God. La proprietà privata sancita dalle leggi umane e divine. Thus, by degrees, came into existence the patrimony which the Church has guarded with religious care as the inheritance of the poor. Be the first to ask a question about Rerum Novarum. Poiché, sebbene così prepotente sia negli uomini la forza dei pregiudizi e delle passioni, nondimeno, se la pravità del volere non ha spento in essi il senso dell'onesto, non potranno non provare un sentimento benevolo verso gli operai quando li scorgono laboriosi, moderati, pronti a mettere l'onestà al di sopra del lucro e la coscienza del dovere innanzi a ogni altra cosa. Si stabilisca dunque in primo luogo questo principio, che si deve sopportare la condizione propria dell'umanità: togliere dal mondo le disparità sociali, è cosa impossibile. You must create a Free Account in order to download or read online book. Of primary concern is the need for some amelioration of "the misery and wretchedness pressing so unjustly on the majority of the working class. enciclica di papa Leone XIII del 15 maggio 1891 sulla “questione sociale”. He does not argue for a pure capitalist system where market determines wages, but lays out a Biblical view of what wages must be in order to assure. Se uno cade, è sostenuto dall'altro. Non possono allo stesso modo e con gli stessi uffici cooperare al bene comune gli artigiani; tuttavia vi concorrono anch'essi potentemente con i loro servizi, benché in modo indiretto. "Of that which remaineth, give alms. Doubtless, this most serious question demands the attention and the efforts of others besides ourselves - to wit, of the rulers of States, of employers of labor, of the wealthy, aye, of the working classes themselves, for whom We are pleading.

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