- 4 December 2020
Naval Document Centre Hamburg-Alsterdorf, den March 22nd, 1948. Who struggled onto a lifeboat with this blanket during that fateful night, whose occupants were subsequently taken on board and rescued by a German torpedo boat, which I have been made aware of by his son. By the time the Soviet Union advanced on Germany’s eastern front in January of 1945, it was clear the advantage in World War II was with the Allies. Jeden błąd i wystarczyłoby to do zatopienia. Even if the details of the Gustloff or other German ships had been more widely or immediately known, considering the reigning public sentiment in the United States and other Allied countries it may not have elicited much sympathy. is now 92 years old and suffering from dementia in a nursing home on January 27. Without a reliable passenger manifest, the exact number of people onboard during the sinking will never be known, but what is beyond doubt is that when this vessel—built for less than 2,000 people—pushed off at midday on the 30th of January, it was many times over its intended capacity. He then had to take evasive maneuvers to avoid suffering the same fate as the Gustloff. War crime or not, what happened to Wilhelm Gustloff was bad. 1940s Newspaper Article on the Sinking of the General von Steuben, 1968 navigation chart of the Baltic Sea with the location of the, Personal document for Mrs. Josefine Dammeyer, who was aboard the. Według oficjalnych danych na pokładzie Wilhelma Gustloffa było 6050 osób. Wilhelm Gustloff (* 30.Januar 1895 in Schwerin; † 4. Even as it was preparing to depart the harbor, the ship was still picking up more human cargo, another 600 from the steamer Reval, for example. W tej roli zasady były jasno określone. (The officer who found the infant would adopt and raise the boy). W skrócie statek miał zapewnić luksusowe wakacje wszystkim Niemcom, niezależnie czy był to robotnik, czy pracownik na wysokim stanowisku. Keep up-to-date on: © 2020 Smithsonian Magazine. In context, the Gustloff was another tragedy in a war full of losses. The problem, however, was that the Soviet navy lay in wait for any transports that crossed their path and sank the Gustloff 75 years ago this week in what is likely the greatest maritime disaster in history. IL RELITTO DELLA CORAZZATA REGINA MARGHERITA, IL RELITTO DEL TRANSATLANTICO WILHELM GUSTLOFF. Wilhelm Gustloff var ett tyskt passagerarfartyg, byggt av Blohm & Voss, sjösatt den 5 maj 1937, förlist efter torpedering den 30 januari 1945 i södra Östersjön. Furthermore, the Gustloff, though its toll is considered the highest, was not the only ship to go down in the Baltic during Operation Hannibal. Despite having earlier been prohibited from fleeing, German citizens understood by the end of January that no other choice existed. Wiał silny wiatr, padał śnieg a temperatura spadała do -10 °C. off the beach and carved into a figure of the Madonna by an unknown person. Trzy lata spędził nawet w gułagu. Mrs. D. could be saved, but not her belongings and her personal papers, which were lost.... this certificate was issued as a preliminary identity card. Przeciążony statek miał też na pokładzie czterech kapitanów, którzy nie mogli się porozumieć co do prędkości ani trasy. Jednak stał się sławny z innego powodu. Z powodu istniejących wątpliwości, czy atak na statek Wilhelm Gustloff był uzasadniony, długo nie można było o tym mówić. Inhaber dieses Ausweises ist berechtigt, das KriegshafengelÃ¤nde zwecks Einschiffung auf H.K.S. Two of the most graphic images relating to the, The last three photos come from the Belgian - German diving expedition that recovered the tile mosaic. I also showed her To do Pana Zaolzie. and placed it on the back of the wood: In USA nie dozbrajało ZSRR za darmo. Męska część rodziny zginęła w Rosji, na frontach I i II wojny światowej.Ciotka matki Donalda Tuska zginęła wraz z czwórką dzieci oraz 8 tys. Admiral Karl Dönitz felt that the earlier the evacuation took place, the better its chance of success, a reasonable assumption. Można by było nimi obsadzić jakieś 30-40 U-botów... "Gustloff" stał w porcie przez parę lat. Fenomen statku polegał na tym, że kajuty były bezklasowe. PROBLEMATYCZNY DOWÓDCA. For those who remained on deck, it was becoming apparent that death in the freezing water was imminent. Artifacts recovered from the wreck of the, Photographed at right are four artifacts which were recovered from the wreck of the, in the 1980s by Polish sport divers. The stories of the survivors and the memory of the many dead were largely lost in the fog of the closing war, amid pervasive devastation and in a climate where the victors would be little inclined to feel sympathy with a populace considered Nazis—or at the very least, Nazis by association. Jeszcze w lutym udało jej się zatopić kolejny niemiecki statek, General von Stauben. Spedizione subacquea italiana delle IANTD Expeditions alla ricerca dei misteri del tragico affondamento che costo la vita ad altre diecimila profughi tedeschi della Prussia Orientale. Vote Now! Nazi Party officials haggled with the Navy over who was in charge of Hannibal, about the precise start date, even about who was to be rescued first. Pierwsza niezależna biografia" Sławomir Grabias, Wyd. German refugees were on the road in the winter of 1944-45, great columns of men, women, and children, desperate to flee as the onrushing Soviets overran their homes. grateful memory of our meeting with my lifesavers. turned it over to a German auction house in 2008 to be sold along with other items from the personal collection. Pozostałe nie mogły płynąć ze względu na zły stan techniczny. Recovered before diving limits were imposed upon the wreck, these, along with several other artifacts were divided up by said divers. Learn more about the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff in this article. Statek przechylił się na prawą burtę, potem na lewą i z powrotem na prawą. Unsolved History: Wilhelm Gustloff World's Deadliest Sea Disaster. An emotional piece which was on board that night and survived the worst sinking in history. W ciągu kolejnych 4 lat służył jako statek koszarowy dla załogi niemieckich łodzi podwodnych. Sadly, his father - the owner of the blanket - died some years ago due to cancer. The Wilhelm Gustloff underway not long after it was launched in May 1937. An identical key to these sold on March 22nd, 2014 among the 300 lots at the Atlantic Crossing Auctions in Southampton, England: Loan Agreement (Leihvertrag) from July 5th, 1946. Il Relitto del Transatlantico Wilhelm Gustloff - La più grande tragedia della navigazione - Affondamento avvenuto il 30 gennaio 1945 da parte del sommergibile sovietico S-13 del capitano Marinesco. but needs a big score to mitigate his misdeeds while on land. Plain design aside from a small decoration in the middle of the piece. Jedynie kurs na Szwecję lub maksymalna prędkość mogły uratować Gustloffa"... Co za bzdety, dlaczego uciekali ci uchodźcy? Seeing the cemetery for the German war dead at Futa Pass was a stark reminder of the human cost of defeating fascism. Statek płynął sam, jedynie pod eskortą torpedowca Löwe. Kolejna niepotrzebna katastrofa i zbrodnia komunistycznej Rosji. The recorded numbers contradict one another, and we probably never will know how many people were on board the ship. The current count for the casualities for the. A niemcy mieli prawo zatopić statek pasażerski ATHENIA ? They, too, were at risk from the S-13. Fighting forces turned into forces of occupation, working to maintain a fragile peace while living amongst former enemies. The Soviet advance south of them had cut off land routes; their best chance at escape was on the Baltic Sea. Marinesko po prostu czekał na trasie. Despite having earlier been prohibited from fleeing, German citizens understood by the end of January that no other choice existed. During the years, he kept it stowed away and when he died of cancer, it was inherited by his son. Very good condition. Wilhelm Gustloff sank within an hour. the hopes that someone out there may know more about the Madonna and be able to Smithsonian Institution, ( Sueddeutsche Zeitung Photo / Alamy Stock Photo), (Courtesy of the Wilhelm Gustloff Museum), The realities of war meant that instead of a vacationing vessel the. The new arrivals overwhelmed the city, but there was no turning them back. Those who had not been killed by the initial blast or by the chaos on board after the attack froze to death in the icy Baltic. “They said to have a ticket to the Gustloff is half of your salvation,” ship passenger Heinz Schön recalled in an episode of the early 2000s Discovery Channel series “Unsolved History.” “It was Noah’s Ark.”. The province of East Prussia, soon to be partitioned between the Soviet Union and Poland, bore witness to what the Germans called Operation Hannibal, a massive evacuation effort to ferry civilians, soldiers and equipment back to safety via the Baltic Sea. “And then he let go and slide after his dead wife and his children across the icy, snow-covered deck, and over the side,” Schön recalled. "Radio Room" door plaque from Alexander Marinesko's S-13 Submarine, plaque came from Liepajas Tosmares shipyard territory, where according to the legend was cut into metal Marinesko's S-13 submarine. Hitler's brutal 'war of extermination' that begun in June 1941 in the East and causing unprecedented human suffering - has turned upon him with a vengeance. Here, rumor had it, they would be evacuated to the west. In little over an hour, Vollrath wrote, the Gustloff had “dragged love, hope, and wishes down to the bottom of the sea.”, Continue News of the loss of large passenger liners like the. This piece was purchased on November 22, 2008 at a military auction from Dresden, Germany from the Alschner Antique House. Jak do tego doszło? firstname.lastname@example.org For Trafiony został dziób, maszynownia i przestrzeń basenu pływackiego statku Wilhelm Gustloff. which I express my thanks a thousand times. Jednak stał się sławny z innego powodu. Duma nazistowskiej propagandy miała zapewnić wycieczki klasie robotniczej i odpowiedzialne za to było nazistowskie biuro turystyczne o nazwie Kraft durch Freude (Siła przez Radość) – KdF. California Do Not Sell My Info Life is so hard and cruel, I wish it was all over. washing up along the coastlines closest to where the liner went down. Captain Paul Vollrath, who served as senior second officer, later wrote in his account in Sea Breezes magazine that adequate escort ships were simply not available “in spite of a submarine warning having been circulated and being imminent in the very area we were to pass through.” After dark, to Vollrath’s dismay, the ship’s navigation lights were turned on—increasing visibility but making the massive ship a beacon for lurking enemy submarines. The trek was a harrowing one, replete with sub-zero temperatures, blizzards, and Soviet air attacks. They were making for the coast, for the safety of the ports Pillau or Gotenhafen. February 11, , 1945, someone discovered some of her debris washed up Full-fledged panic is erupting in East Prussia. Statek musiał być przemalowany na biało, z widocznym czerwonym krzyżem na boku, a na pokładzie nie mogła znajdować się broń. Trzy torpedy trafiły w cel. Weeks later, the General von Steuben was also sunk by Marinesko (the credit he sought was slow in coming—his reputation didn’t recover in his lifetime, but he would be posthumously celebrated for his wartime actions.) "At the Gotenhafen fortress, Ms. D. was to be transferred by ship to the less endangered area of the Reich. Wręcz przeciwnie – został zdegradowany za swoją przeszłość i odszedł z marynarki. from a well-known nautical collector in Germany who specializes in selling (Courtesy of the Wilhelm Gustloff Museum) Soon the nearby Soviet submarine S-13, under the … It presented an easy target for a commander who could use a boost to his reputation. German refugees were on the road in the winter of 1944-45, great columns … Matka Donalda Tuska wspomina, że jej mama i babcia chciały uciekać po wojnie do Niemiec, bo "w końcu były Niemkami" (Donald Tusk. URLOP DLA KAŻDEGO. , under the command of Alexander Marinesko, who was in a tenuous position with his own chain of command after his mission was delayed by his land-based alcohol consumption habits, spotted the large, illuminated ship. One side of the blanket has the hand, chain stitched, script, "Kriegsmarine", in red cotton threads. Yet neither side—a Nazi Germany near defeat, nor a Soviet Union on its way to brutal victory—had an incentive to widely broadcast the deaths of so many citizens. Heinz Schulz and Captain Freidrich Segelken. An estimated 9,000 passengers were killed in the sinking, making it the greatest maritime disaster in history. Niemcy, zagrożeni ofensywą radziecką na Pomorzu przenosili bazy floty na zachód. One thing is certain. She chose to give her ausweis to her girlfriend so she could travel with her mother on the, Fleeing from a brutal Soviet Red Army onslaught, the, Most refugees were in such shock after escaping with their lives, they just found an area of the ship to huddle in for the long voyage. One of the male passengers was sitting in the cabin he shared when the liner was hit. No help was at hand. Była tam załoga łodzi podwodnych transportowana do walki w innym miejscu. Left 'as is' from the wreck, still contains sediment inside and out. Nach ihm wurden die Wilhelm-Gustloff-Stiftung und das KdF-Kreuzfahrtschiff Wilhelm Gustloff benannt. Jeszcze trochę i będziemy przepraszać Niemców za II wojnę swiatowa... II wojnę światową wywołały Niemcy i Rosja, które we wrześniu 1939 r, na Polskę napadły, ponad miliard konserw, 20 mln par butów, 8 tysięcy lokomotyw, po kilkanaście tysięcy samolotów, czołgów, wagonów kolejowych, setki statków,ponad 700 tysięcy różnych samochodów, broń, amunicje, paliwo. Oczywiście znajdowały się tam również wielkie sale z parkietem do tańca, restauracja i kryty basen. He was rescued from the water by the T-36 commanded by Capt. Before the war, the 25,000-ton Wilhelm Gustloff had been used “to give vacationing Nazis ocean-going luxury,” the Associated Press noted shortly after its 1937 christening, part of the “Strength Through Joy” movement meant to reward loyal workers. He will find it soon enough. - Used for medicine out of the ship's pharmacy as well, measures 11cm high with the marking "R" on the front. collection. Consider what happened to the German ship Wilhelm Gustloff on the evening of January 30, 1945, seventy-five years ago. Dla zamaskowania tego wzięli na pokład uciekinierów cywilnych i rannych żołnierzy. 17th Annual Photo Contest Finalists Announced. Even while held as POWs by the Germans in the POW camp Stalag Luft IV, American servicemen exercised their civic duty and made their voices heard, at least to each other, when they held a straw vote for the 1944 presidential election. During this time, several divers went to the wreck gathering everything from hand rails and decking to portholes and interior effects. A few minutes later, the, disappeared forever beneath the Baltic waves. Wilhelm Gustloff" - Disaster Party stormed with inquiries The offices of the Party and the Navy in all parts of the Reich were yesterday stormed by anxious persons, who suspect that their relatives were perhaps onboard the "Wilhelm Gustloff", which was torpedoed by a Russian submarine on January 30th at 9:00 pm in the Danzig Bay and sunk within 15 minutes. Nie czytaliście o tym? It presented an easy target for a commander who could use a boost to his reputation. Joint Wreck Expedition to the Baltic Sea. A ticket for the Gustloff from someone who didn't board the ship at the last minute. While officials argued, refugees kept pouring into the port, until by mid-January, Pillau was bulging with some 100,000 desperate civilians. 945 Magazine Street, New Orleans, LA 70130 Three years later on January 30, , 1948, the piece was presented to “He thought he would be a real hero for doing it,” says Cathryn J. W górnych były leżaki do dyspozycji wszystkich pasażerów. Private First Class Ferris LeBlanc served his country honorably during World War II. Sam Adolf Hitler uczestniczył w ceremonii chrztu statku, który pierwotnie miał przyjąć jego imię. Please, dear family Georgi, do not be angry with me, I wanted to write to you, if you, have any wish, please let me know. I have to stay here. W każdej było łóżko oraz ciepła i zimna woda. It has a 4" wide interwoven red stripe positioned near each end. Float through the mine-laden shallower waters, or the submarine-infested deeper waters? Kiedy w 1933 roku naziści doszli do władzy, to wszystkie niezależne związki zawodowe zostały zlikwidowane. Gerhard Grasshoff was already on the ship as a sergeant since November, 1944. KONIEC ZABAWY. Their ship, the, January, 1945 - Gotenhafen. Gustloff był bazą II dywizji szkoleniowej U-bootów i był na etacie okrętu wojennego. Kriegsmarine blanket saved from the sinking, When the torpedoes from the S-13 exploded against the, , passengers began the stampede to escape the sinking liner. I want you to know that, everything remains as I found it, clean and tidy. NIEDOCENIONY BOHATER. Indeed, most of the ship’s actual crew was trapped in the forecastle, behind watertight doors that had locked automatically upon impact. *Mr. Georgi wrote a letter to his parents in Gotenhafen in February, 1945. Do akcji włączyli wszystkie swoje statki będące na Bałtyku, z Wilhelmem Gustloffem włącznie. Most of the Gustloff’s estimated 10,000 passengers—which included U-boat trainees and members of the Women’s Naval Auxiliary—would die just hours after they boarded on January 30, 1945. Because there was no damage to the piece aside from tarnishing, it has since been cleaned to its original condition. 22 września 1939 roku Wilhelm Gustloff był włączony do Kriegsmarine (marynarka wojenna III rzeszy) jako statek szpitalny. I can't leave. Ponadto nie zaopatrywali ZSRR na początku wojny. Udana misja była jego jedyną szansą na uniknięcie rozstrzelania za samowolne opuszczenie okrętu. Jej dowódca Alexander Marinesko (1913–1963) był tam w ramach kary. NA SŁUŻBIE. The beds and linen are gone; everything seems to have been taken along, only all the, dishes, and some sofa cushions and the furniture are there. He and his colleagues were ordered to move cabins from the port side of the ship to make way for those coming on. sister, Mrs. Anni Trommler, has filed an application for her husband's declaration of death having gone down with the, ou are requested to make an affidavit that your brother-in-law was aboard the, Georgi Family Documents from the Wilhelm Gustloff Sinking. Wilhelm Gustloff, German ocean liner that was sunk by a Soviet submarine on January 30, 1945. The realities of war meant that instead of a vacationing vessel the Gustloff was soon used as a barracks; it had not been maintained in seaworthy condition for years before it was hastily repurposed for mass evacuation. Mr. Early on, the ship’s senior officers faced a series of undesirable trade-offs. Polska płaciła dla USA w ramach Lend-Lease nawet za wodę pitną dla Batorego wożącego wojska USA. Niemożliwe, żeby Rosjanie o tym nie wiedzieli. The timing of everything is suited for a Shakespearean play. If they could get to the dock and if they could get on board, the Gustloff offered them a voyage away from besieged East Prussia. Statek dysponował 8 przestrzennymi pokładami, każdy o wielkości prawie 5000 m2. Pozostałe statki, które wyruszyły na ratunek, ocaliły jedynie 1239 pasażerów włącznie z czterema kapitanami. Atak był uzasadniony czy nie? In fact, we might say it was the worst. Wskutek jego zatonięcia zginęło ponad 9 000 osób, to najwięcej w morskiej w historii. Later that evening, as the Gustloff pushed into the sea and westward toward relative safety in the German city of Kiel, Hitler delivered what would be his last radio address and commanded the nation “to gird themselves with a yet greater, harder spirit of resistance,” sparing none: “I expect all women and girls to continue supporting this struggle with utmost fanaticism.” His futile exhortations were carried on the airwaves—and broadcast on the Gustloff itself—12 years to the day of when he formally assumed power on January 30, 1933. I consider myself lucky to care for this. Ponieważ płynął on bardzo wolno, dowódca Marinesko zdecydował ścigać go na powierzchni wody. NAJWIĘKSZA TRAGEDIA MORSKA. Christian ran a front page article in the newspaper on January 30th, 2016 in Marinesko, pomimo surowego zakazu, w Sylwestra opił się w mieście portowym Hanko, zamieszkałym przez fińskich Szwedów i przegapił moment odpłynięcia swojej łodzi podwodnej. W styczniu 1945 roku miała miejsce największa ewakuacja w historii. port city of Gotenhafen (now Gdynia, Poland, he formally assumed power on January 30, 1933, documentary on the National Geographic Channel, 4,500 concentration camp prisoners on board, Nine of the Weirdest Penises in the Animal Kingdom, The New Science of Our Ancient Bond With Dogs. In addition to the many other German nautical pieces he sells, I purchased two of these keys off of him. Napaść na statek Wilhelm Gustloff jest postrzegana różnie. Cabins that were already cramped with the standard 2 or 4 passengers were double or triple that size. Among the German populace, stories of rape and murder by vengeful Soviet forces inspired dread; the specter of relentless punishment pushed many living in the Red Army’s path to abandon their homes and make a bid for safety. In the spring, the sinking of the Goya would add another 7,000 to the Baltic toll; the Cap Arcona was sunk by British forces with 4,500 concentration camp prisoners on board. According to the son, the commander of the torpedo boat, Hering, rescued some hundred survivors...", The blanket is a grey wool/rayon blend which measures 6' 4" long and 4' 4" wide. A night of horror, and the worst maritime disaster of all time. In 2009, we acquired and. Eventually, he. Was it a war crime? – SUBMARINER BARRACK SHIP (EX LINER K.d.F.) Działał też zwiad lotniczy. Krew mnie zalewa jak czytam te łzawe teksty o uchodźcach cywilnych. ticket just to reach the piers where the big ships lay waiting. Signum Temporis, 2011). mundury, żywność i co tylko Rosjanie od USA dostały i bez tego, jak twierdzą historycy, granica niemiecko-japońska, najpóźniej jesienią 1943 r, byłaby faktem.
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